5w40, 10w40, 10w50 and ...

Is the SAE rating for multigrade oil. Nothing to worry about, and you don't even need to know what the SAE means.

A 5w40 motor oil is thinner compares to a 10w40 motor oil in same low temperature conditions - because the "W" number is lower.
So, the "W" shows better cold weather performance, the 5w flows better than a 10w, simply just consider the "W" stands for 'winter'. It's a relative number to indicate how easily it will allow an engine to "turn over" at low temperatures instead of viscosity reference.

As for the final number, says 10w40 and 10w50. So, what the 40 and 50 mean?

The final number is based upon the kinematic viscosity at 100 Centigrade. Is a rating, how a monograde '40' and a monograde oil '50' behave at tempreature 100 Centigrade.

As you know solid-liquid get thinner when temperature increases. So, the engine oil will eventually 'thin-out' as the engine get hotter. When then oit get thiner to very thin liquid and finally almost as thin as water and the extreme end would be the oil turns gaseous - the oil will loose its 'lubrication' properties (no more behave like engine oil). In simpler words, a 10w50 performs better than 10w40 in hotter temperature.

A small note from Mercedes-Benz Approved Engine Oils for the Latest Engines that might interest you: 5W-30 oil viscosity is not approved for use in all AMG engines thus I don't think any turbo engine or high stress-strained engine should be using 5W-30, must at least use 5W-40 or above.

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What and which engine oil for your car

You should consider what type of motor oil should go into your car. Motor oils are designated by relative weight, which translates to how thick they are and how much heat can they take before breaking down completely. Cars driven in the winter may require a "10w 30" weight oil which won't turn to a thick syrup in the cold. A small car driven in the hot Asia summers might use a "5w 20" weight to avoid overheating. Every car's needs are different, so ask the attendant to select the best weight motor oil for your particular engine. Sometimes it's the same all year round, but in other circumstances it may have to change with the seasons.

If you're planning on taking a long car trip or really want to keep your car in prime running condition, you may want to consider the more advanced oil change options. A basic oil change at a local shop may cover the cost of the oil, a disposal fee and a quick inspection of the car's other fluids and hoses. The next step up may include lubrication of the chassis, tire inspection, topping off other fluids and a more thorough belt inspection. Deluxe oil change services vary from venue to venue, so be sure to ask the manager or attendant about what to expect in return for the higher charges.

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Cocktailed engine oil

I know you like cocktails or you admire the bartender. But why you don't simply mix engine oils? WHAT IF?

One of the early synthetics used was a Polyalkylene Glycol. This was totally incompatable and would gel when mixed. This has not been used for years for automotive lubrication. All common syntetics used forengine lubrication now days are a Polyalphaolefin (Mobil 1) or a Dibasic Organic Ester type (AMSOIL). These are fully compatable with conventional oils. In fact Golden Spectro and AGIP Sint 2000 are mixtures of mineral and synthetic oils. It is always best to mix oils with the same rating (SG). This insures that the additive packages are compatable and will maintain their effectiveness.
... Robyn Landers (http://www.bajahill.net/oilfaq.txt)

A snippet from Mercedes-Benz User Manual: Approved engine oils (synthetic/ mineral) may be mixed. However, we only recommend mixing engine oils of the same quality grade and SAE class.
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Ester based synthetic oil

While some synthetic motor oil use hydrocarbon (PAO) as their base material, Organic based ester (base stock) for its motor oil inherents high quality characteristics has proven to be the highest quality base material for synthetic oil used even by aeroplanes.

One of the organic ester based synthetic oil is Chemlube www.chemlube.com.my. Chemlube synthetic oil remains committed to the use of organic ester although costs are about 40% more expensive than PAO or hydrocarbon synthetic oil.

Conventional 100% Synthetic super-multigrade lubricant (5W40, 5W50, 10W60...) use VII (Viscosity index improver) to boost their viscosity. These viscosity additive tend to loose efficiency and shear when submitted to extreme conditions. As motor oil use ester for its base material, it benefit from the natural viscosity of synthetic ester thus they need very little of such additives or none.

Esters are very stable at extremely high temperatures and are used almost exclusively in jet engines.

Superior benefits of organic ester are:
Natural Affinity to stay on metal surfaces providing a thin protective film to eliminate dry start-up engine wear which means easier morning starts and smoother engine operations.

Very High Viscosity Index indicate a low viscosity change. By employing Ester as the base for synthetic oil, it changes the conventional concept of synthetic oil. Ester are polar molecules that have the ability to electro-chemically bond with metals, so as to maintain a continuous lubricant film at high or low temperature (the element found in oil additive or as aditive in engine oil). This in turn provided a better resistance to thinning at high temperatures and thickening at low temperature.

Outstanding Film Strength so it takes a lot longer for the oil to drain completely off the bearings and into your oil sump. This prolongs engine life and increase engine efficiency.

Strong Detergent Characteristic - inhibits rust and corrosion but minimizes spark plug fouling and carbon, gum and sludge deposits. Ester itself is a natural detergent, it adheres naturally to motor parts which dissolves and suspending harmful sludge, varnish and carbon deposits which keep engines and lubrication ports cleaner and in top performing shape.
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Compound oil - the modern oil

Compound oil or mixture of oils were subsequently available and have gigantic roles on today motor or engine oil.

-And, the discovery was an accident!
It took place in 1877, at Crossley Works in Manchester. An operator who was cleaning a gas engine that jammed by combustion deposit solidification each night. He mistakenly filled up the engine with colza lamp oil instead of cylinder lubricator. As a result the engine free to turn the next morning.

The significance of this was soon realized and oil companies by experiments cleaning behavior could be obtained through adding roughly 10% of vegetable or animal oils to archive the cleaning effect in engine. Blended oils also had lower coefficient of friction than mineral oils thus making suitable for bearing to run at higher speeds.

Exclusively, the blended oils were for racing car engine. Gradually they spread into private car arena as blended oils formed smaller amounts and softer deposit making cleaning easier, decoking also less frequent.
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Motor Oil Viscosity

How thick is the oil or how it resists flowing?

-1000 grains of oil to flow through a small orifice in the testing apparatus at each temperature.

-The �standard� set for oil from sperm whale was 100 at 70oF

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History of lubrication

Lubrications started when there were needs to:
-The need to separate rubbing metal surfaces to prevent overheating, rapid wear and seizure
-First internal combustion engine lubrication was based on many years of steam engine experience.

Do you know?
During the steam engine era, the engines utilized animal and vegetable oil to lubricate but were found unsuitable as they decomposed into organic acids when heated. Latter, mineral oils substitute in �locomoting� the cylinder bores and animal/vegetable only used for bearing lubrication. Basicly, during that era, anything in the forms of slippery liquid or slimy material were used to lubricate. No research or thinking is put into lubrication.

The era after 1910s
The engines prior to that were revving like the arm in the clock, which were countable with bare eyes. Engine oil was never emphasized as recent era when the tachometers in our era showing the values in multiplier of x1000 rpm! In these last decades, motor oil is critical in so many ways:
-Performance oil
-Racing oil

Today car demand powerful yet efficient engines increase stress translate to higher temperature and outrageous reving.

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What engine oil the F1 car use?

The drivers may be the stars of the show, but Formula 1 is a highly complex sport in which success depends on the team, chassis, engine and driver all working in harmony to deliver the last thousandths of a second of performance. Here we take a look at the �anatomy� of the Castrol-backed BMW WilliamsF1 Team, deconstructing each of the elements that go into making it one of the most successful squads in the history of the sport.

BMW WilliamsF1 Team - Castrol
Ferrari - Shell ... I suppose

Just because we see F1 cars run so well, we are eager to find out the type and brand of oil that we could use for our own car.
Which is the best motor oil? What weight is the best for a modified car or highly tuned car?

Which oil should I use to:
-reduce fuel consumption
-increase milelage
-make engine more quiet
-accelerate faster
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Viscosity, oil grades, the SAE, API etc

Viscosity is the thickness of oil, it also shows how easy the oil to flow and to behave and misbehave like OIL. There where the SAE rating come in.

API Certified
The API Starburst identifies engine oils recommended for a certain application, such as "For Gasoline Engines." To carry this symbol on the container, the oil must satisfy the most current requirements of the International Lubrication Standardization and Approval Committee minimum performance standard for that application.

Service Ratings
The service rating indicates that oil's performance properties, such as its ability to deal with extremes of heat, to minimize harmful deposits or contribute to reduced oil consumption.

The ratings are expressed as a pair of letters:
- gasoline engines the first letter is "S" for spark. Also, "C" for Diesel 's compression.
- The second letter�beginning with "A" ...till the current classification, "M," indicates the performance rating.

Petrol Engine

Diesel Engine
CF (CF4)

It is significant to remember that each succeeding, or higher, performance rating includes all the capabilities of all those that have gone before it. Therefore, the current rating, "M," will work for any automobile (petrol) engine on the road.

Performance Ratings
The following Category/Status/Service list indicates the performance ratings:
SM � Current � For all automotive engines presently in use.
SL, SJ � Current � For 2004, 2001 and older automotive engines.
SH, SG, SF, SE, SD, SC, SB, SA � Obsolete � For 1993 and older engines.

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FAQ on Synthetic Oils

Why goes synthetic?
To be short. Well, Synthetic oil is more uniform in molecular structure. The purity is far more better as this is synthesize in labs. If you remember high school chemistry, mineral oil is a cocktail (mixture) of hydrocarbon. The synthetics claim " ...Special synthetic base stock blend and advanced additive package provides up to four times the wear protection of other motor oils. Reduces friction for quicker engine response and increased horsepower. Improves fuel efficiency ... ".

Conventional oils come from crude oil that is pumped from the ground. Crude oil is made up of a complex mixture of molecules that form chains and rings of different sizes and shapes. Long chains of carbon atoms produce a thick, viscous fluid that flows slowly. Shorter chains produce fluid that flows more readily. In an oil refinery, crude oil is separated into various fractions, into lubricating oils and fuels. Even so, small amounts of contaminants, such as sulfur and reactive hydrocarbons, cannot be completely removed from petroleum, and may end up in motor oil base stocks. All motor oils are made up of base oils and additives. In general, fully synthetic motor oils contain non-conventional, high-performance fluids. Synthetic blends usually use some non-conventional, high-performance fluids in combination with conventional oil ... http://www.mobiloil.com/USA-English/MotorOil/Synthetics/Why_Synthetics.aspx

The chronology:
1930's � Primarily used by the military. Synthetic lubricants helped keep oil from freezing in army tanks during World War II winters.
1950's � Jet engines appeared and synthetics really took off. Speeds, temperatures and altitudes increased. Synthetics met the challenge.
1970's � Performance in race cars continued to show the benefits over conventional oils. Synthetic motor oil debuted in passenger cars.
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Oil Additive: Why and Why not?

Chemical (synthetic or mineral based) additives engineered into a motor oil by highly skilled chemists, scientists and lubrication engineers. But why we or some still go for the extra miles to get ADDITIVES?

The PRO: The same reason we take mineral/ vitamin suppliments daily.
The CON: Will this extra elements react adversely to the existing chemicals with the engine oil? There are many questions more to the answers.

The Additives act as:
1. friction modifier
2. polarised effects
3. .. lists go on
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